Balance and Exhibition of the Truth (Mizanu’l-Haq & Izharu’l-Haq)


Abstract: After the Christians took over the administration in India in the 19th century, they put forward their missionary activities under the shadow of their power. Missionaries intensified their activities in places where the people were crowded in India. They did most of their activities on the Muslims. Mizanu'l-Haq was written as a propaganda tool against Islam. Based on Pfander's Mizanu'l-Haq work and activities, the UK based British Church Missionary Society -CMS-, which had the view that he was a successful missionary, gave Pfander the nickname "Champion of Missionaries". As a result of both written and verbal challenges by Christian missionaries against Islam rather than other religions, the great Islamic scholars of the period were worried and decided to respond to such accusations. As a result of the famous discussion/debate between Rahmatullah Kairanavi and priest Pfander, which took place at the Church Missionary Society school in Agra, a work like Izharu’l-Haq was created. The Ottoman Empire also gave great importance to Rahmatullah Kairanavi and his world-famous work called Izharu'l-Haq. Just as the Islamic world saw Pfander's work Mizanu'l-Haq as dangerous to Islam, Kairanavi's Izharu'l-Haq frightened the Christian world in the same way. This article throws light upon an understanding of the general characteristics of India, especially its religious situation, at the time of the debate. It deals with the extent to which the people of India were affected by these events, and how and in which environment Izharu’l-Haq emerged.

Keywords: India, Rahmatullah Keyranevi, Izharu'l-Haq, Christian missionaries, Pfander, Mizanu'l-Haq.